Patna High Court is the highest seat of Judiciary in the State of Bihar, having jurisdiction all over the State. It is one of the earliest established High Court of the Country. It is situated in the center of the City, off the Bailey road, opposite to Patna Women's College.
Patna High Court is an architecture marvel build during the Colonial rule. The need of a separate High Court arose when Bihar and Odisha were separated from Bengal Presidency in 1912, and made separate provinces. The foundation stone of the building was laid on December 1, 1913 by the Viceroy and Governor-General of India, Sir Charles Hardinge of Penshurst, and was complete in approximately three years time on February 3, 1916. It was affiliated under the Government of India Act, 1915. The Court started functioning from March 1 of the same year, with the Chief Justice and six Judges with the motto "FAST and Quality Justice". Sir Edward Chamier was the first Chief Justice of the court. The Court exercised jurisdiction over the territories of the province of Bihar and Odisha till 1948, when a separate High Court was constituted in Odisha. In 1972, a Circuit Bench of the Patna High Court was opened at Ranchi, which became a Permanent Bench in 1976. With the partition of Bihar in 2000, the Circuit Bench became Jharkhand High Court under Bihar Reorganization Act, 2000.
Patna High Court building is one of the finest architect high courts building in India. The design of this building was prepared by J. F. Munnings and his associate A. M. Millwood, the architects from Sydney, Australia. Martin Burn of Calcutta was the builder. The entrance hall has been artistically finished in Marble. There is a huge dome and the massive marble parapet adds grandeur to the structure. Beautiful garden have been laid out in front of the building. The red slant roofing attracts attention from distant. There are two entrance gate in the Campus. The one facing the Bailey road is reserved for the Honorable Judges, while one present on the Jawaharlal Nehru Marg, opposite to Lalit Narayan Mishra Institute, is for others.
Patna High Court is symbol of independent judiciary in the State. Many landmark decision has came out from this judiciary temple. The majestic building adds grandeur to its prestige and the City.